This thinking is based on some initial reading or a lecture, and on discussion or writing. The action is not just reading or listening to a lecture from the teacher. Through this action and thinking, we are able to:. They encourage teachers to. In this style of teaching, the teacher is engaged in cooperative activity with their pupils; they construct knowledge jointly. This activity will help you to identify how the TESSA resources offer improved ways of teaching that replace more conventional ways of teaching.
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When you use TESSA materials, you will realise that there is an impact on at least three levels — the pupil, the student teacher and yourself, the Teaching Practice Supervisor. What makes a good teacher? A lot of what makes each individual teacher is hidden beneath the surface. Part of our task as supervisors is to help student teachers to become more aware of these issues, and the deeper issues around teaching.
By using the activity-based teacher materials, and reflecting on how they are used, student teachers become more critical of their own teaching and therefore learn more about themselves, and how to teach. I believe that a key characteristic of a good teacher is that they assess their pupils. I think it is more important that a good teacher organises pupils to engage in collaborative work, encourages their pupils to ask questions and to develop their own learning strategies.
A good teacher is someone who has many skills and characteristics, in particular an interest in the job and who uses relevant instructional materials appropriately. For me, a good teacher is one who uses participatory methods of teaching and has a focus on social skills in their lessons. Teaching Practice Supervisors have to help their students to be good teachers.
Supervision in Teacher Education
You will find it really helpful if you are clear about the kinds of characteristics you want your student teachers to demonstrate. They will naturally show some of these characteristics, and will have to work hard at developing others. TESSA has developed a list of characteristics of a good teacher and has provided a description of the competences displayed by an effective teacher.
Many researchers have tried to identify what a good teacher is. Some say that a good teacher is the one whose pupils get the best results. Some say that a good teacher is one who helps pupils to believe that they can do it themselves. Others say that a good teacher is someone who can manage to make a class work quietly and behave well. What do you think makes a good teacher? We think that this is a complex question, and there are many characteristics which distinguish good teachers.
We also think that the way we define a good teacher depends on our view of education and life as a whole, so different people will emphasise different characteristics over others. How can you help your student teachers to develop the characteristics of good teachers? Here are some ideas:. Table 3 shows some important active teaching and learning methods and some of the skills that student teachers need to develop — these are all covered in the TESSA materials. This activity shows how you can help your student teachers to make the link between the description of active teaching methods and actual examples.
This activity might be suitable to use in one of your seminars on active learning and teaching strategies. You will find it useful to do the activity before the seminar so that you can guide the discussion in the groups or in the plenary. This activity provides the opportunity to use and assess a tool you may find useful with your student teachers. The tool helps them to review their developing approach to an active approach to teaching and learning. First, to become familiar with it, and to find out how the activity will work for your student, we suggest you do this audit for yourself.
Now that you are familiar with this audit table and the way it works, plan how you might use it with your student teachers:. As a Teaching Practice Supervisor, one of your key roles is to identify the good and not so good features of a lesson.
The list of questions below will help you to check the main characteristics of what makes a good lesson. This activity gives you ideas about how to support your student teachers in developing their lessons — you may also want to show your student teachers the video clips. Watch each video in turn with your student teachers and ask them to note down the features of good lessons in these extracts.
Here is an example from the Video of the Maths lesson with a grade 3 class in a semi-urban school. The pupils have just been working on simple sums additions, subtractions, multiplications and divisions and the teacher wants to reinforce their handling of these sums and at the same time check their mental arithmetic on these sums.
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Encouraging buy-in from your student teachers to use TESSA materials needs extensive discussion of some skilful strategies on repeated occasions. Students need time to explore the materials a small chunk at a time and also time to discuss the strategies in the TESSA materials either with you, their cooperating teacher or head teacher or in a small group. Student teachers should be using activities and case studies from the sections as part of their teaching practice.
For many teachers, learning through and from their classroom practice is unfamiliar. There are many factors which influence how student teachers develop their classroom practice. The point of the TESSA materials is to help teachers actually to do the TESSA activities in their classrooms or during teaching practice and to learn skills and gain understanding about teaching. You need to prepare the student teachers for classroom use of the materials, and help them to reflect on their experience of use. Case Study 1 and Case Study 2 show how Teaching Practice Supervisors approached this introduction and followed it up to provide support to the student teachers Case study 1 and help to develop a high level of competence within a learning and teaching strategy Case study 2.
The supervisors were first briefed on the TESSA materials and the expected outcomes of the orientation programme, after which the teachers were taken through the aims and concept of the TESSA materials, schedule of activities and the expected outcomes of the orientation programme.
Key elements were: sample lessons using the new classroom activities, extensive discussion time, choosing the TESSA sections to use, and agreeing when to use the activities. In Kaduna State, the mathematics and science teachers were anxious to know how to use stories and games in teaching. They discussed in groups how they would use them in their classrooms. They each selected the approach that was the closest to the contents of their future lessons and promised to incorporate a game in the lesson and to report back at the next seminar where their experience would be discussed with their peers and their Teaching Practice Supervisors.
However, for many student teachers access to the internet is difficult. During a seminar, Teaching Practice Supervisor Mall. Rabiu set an activity for his group of student teachers. While the group was carrying out the activity, he withdrew student teachers from the group in pairs to discuss which strategy they were going to develop over the next 3—4 weeks. Rabiu believed that students working in pairs might support one another while trying new strategies.
He had already asked all the students to let him know which area of the curriculum they felt more at ease with so that they could develop new teaching techniques in an area they felt reasonably safe in; he had paired up Aisha and Grace, two of his students who had both chosen literacy as they thought their knowledge of their mother tongue and English was strong. Rabiu had the Teaching and Learning Methods table ready on his laptop and Aisha, Grace and he scanned it quickly to determine which teaching strategies Aisha and Grace could develop.
The students both agreed to select the use of songs, poems and storytelling. Rabiu asked them to do some research in the TESSA materials on these methods so that at the next seminar, they could firm up their project.
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During the following week, Aisha and Grace had both read the key resource Using storytelling in the classroom. After a brief discussion, they agreed that their pupils had difficulties in pronouncing some English sounds and that they would use the activity in Literacy Module 1 Section 1 Supporting and assessing reading and writing on using songs and rhymes to make the link between written and spoken phonemes.
Aisha also liked the idea of the big print copy of songs and volunteered to make a few for her class which she would use at the end of the lesson for relaxation as suggested by the key resource , but also to reinforce sound patterns. She thought she might try this three times during the week and share her experiences with Grace by SMS or calling her. It was also agreed she would report back to the whole group at the following seminar and then decide on her next action. In the next seminar, Aisha reported that the big print copy was a great success with the whole class.
The pupils had enjoyed it and made some progress in the recognition and pronunciation of the selected sounds. Grace and Aisha decided to produce a big book each, Aisha in Science and Grace in Mathematics, which they would swap after using them with their pupils. Consider Case Studies 3, 4, 5 and 6 which show how different Teaching Practice Supervisors in different settings have used the TESSA materials to enhance their work and that of their student teachers.
Mrs Adeniji is a school-based supervisor for the teaching practice part of a full-time pre-service teacher training course at a college. They use the materials to guide some of the activities they do in the classroom. One of the student teachers, Maria, has to teach a biology lesson on classifying things in nature. She printed the section and all the supporting resources which she studied carefully. She decided that she would start by following the first part of the section.
She used the model provided by Resource 1 and created a family tree of Goldie, the famous pop-star and discussed the relationships between the various members of the family. Before they actually discussed the lesson, Mrs Adeniji asked Maria to write a reflective response to the experience; she gave her a few questions to guide her writing:. They also considered what Maria would do in the next lesson.
Maria had experienced a few difficulties when she organised the class around the table where the six items where displayed. She is determined to plan more lessons that actively involve pupils and asked whether she could continue to use the ideas from TESSA as support, which Mrs Adeniji granted with pleasure. Mr Omotoso is a supervisor for a distance education teacher training programme and wants his student teachers to see that learning does not always involve the teacher talking at the front of the classroom, but that different ways of doing things can work.
He had been introduced to the TESSA materials at a workshop and thought that the case studies provided lively scenes of different classroom organisation and different learning and teaching methods. He reflected on how best to enable his student teachers to gain some familiarity with these different methods and decided on a focused approach.
To support his student teachers, he gave them a copy of the instructions on how to access the TESSA website, copied from this Toolkit, and a copy of a sheet he had prepared using the Teaching and Learning Methods table to give them quicker access to the appropriate resources. At the next seminar, he structured the discussion around what they had discovered, how they could implement the ideas in their own teaching, the sort of support they would need to seek from their colleagues at school, particularly the cooperating teacher, what they would need to do to try one of the activities they had read about.