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Ayant une association pour rendre accessible la Culture aux aveugles, je propose mes lectures en audio mp3 pour les offrir ici Apologies if this message isn't in your language. The Wikimedia Foundation is planning to upgrade MediaWiki the software powering this wiki to its latest version this month. You can help to test it before it is enabled, to avoid disruption and breakage. More information is available in the full announcement. Thank you for your understanding. There is clearly a strong environmental component to the risk differences.
Migrant populations from high risk parts of the world show a marked diminution in risk when they move to a lower risk area, although this is quite gradual and seems to depend on the age at migration.
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Its action is probably indirect by provoking gastritis, a precursor of gastric atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia. Infection is acquired in childhood, and prevalence within populations is certainly related to socioeconomic status. However, it is clear that with such high prevalence and relatively small international variation, that factors other than H.
Diet certainly plays an important role. Risk is increased by high intakes of some traditionally preserved salted foods, especially meats and pickles, and with salt per se. Risk is decreased by high intakes of fruits and vegetables, 40 , 41 which may be in part related to their vitamin C content. Tobacco smoking has also been clearly accepted as increasing the risk of stomach cancer.
Bataille de l'Atlantique (1939-1945) : chronologie
There has been a steady decline in the risk of gastric cancer incidence and mortality over several decades in most countries. There were , new cases of prostate cancer worldwide in , making this the fifth most common cancer in the world and the second most common in men The prognosis is relatively good; it is a less prominent cause of mortality with , deaths 5. Until the middle of the s, prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States were gradually increasing, partly due to a genuine increase in risk and partly due to increasing diagnosis of latent, asymptomatic cancers in prostatectomy specimens resulting from the increasing use of transurethral resection of the prostate.
Since then, incidence rates have declined, although they remain substantially higher than before. The recent declines in mortality are a consequence of declines in the incidence of distant stage disease, rather than change in survival, 51 suggesting they are largely the consequence of screening. Hsing et al. This is probably partly the effect of increasing detection following transurethral resection of the prostate and, more recently, due to use of PSA.
Some of this increase may be due to greater awareness of the disease, and diagnosis of small and latent cancers. But it is also probable that there is a genuine increase in risk occurring. Increases in mortality have also been substantial, although they are generally less marked than for incidence, especially in countries where the incidence rates are relatively high.
However, since the s, there have been declines in mortality rates of several developed countries, which may be the result of earlier detection and improved treatment. As noted above, a fair bit of this was due to the huge surge in the United States 9. But even if there were no further increase in the United States, a continued increase of this magnitude would mean that there would be almost , new cases per year by the year Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide in terms of numbers of cases , or 5. It is therefore the third most common cause of death from cancer.
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The incidence is low in developed areas only in southern Europe is there any substantial risk , Latin America, and southcentral Asia. The overall sex ratio male:female is around 2. The exception is Japan, where chronic infection with HBV is low, but where the generations most at risk of liver cancer have a relatively high rate of infection with hepatitis C virus. Exposure to aflatoxins is probably also an important contributor to the high incidence of liver cancer in those tropical areas of the world where contamination of food grains with the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is common.
There is a multiplicative interaction between aflatoxin exposure and chronic HBV infection, suggesting different carcinogenic mechanisms. The incidence shows little international variation, with rates in males between 0. Primary prevention of the majority of liver cancer cases worldwide is now feasible, thanks to the development of a vaccine against HBV. This has been shown to be effective in preventing infection in childhood. A dramatic demonstration of the results of community vaccination is already available from Taiwan, where HBV immunization of newborns was introduced in ; for children aged 6 to 9 years in birth cohorts receiving vaccination, there was a dramatic decrease in incidence of liver cancer.
Cervix cancer is the seventh in frequency overall, but the second most common cancer among women worldwide, with an estimated , new cases and , deaths in the year In developed countries, cervical cancer accounts for only 3. Mortality rates are substantially lower than incidence. Even in developing countries, where many cases present at relatively advanced stage, survival rates are fair Table 2. It is quite clear that the major etiological agents are oncogenic subtypes of the human papilloma virus HPV. Although some of the difference reflects changing data sources, cancer registry results also indicate a fairly dramatic decline in rates in recent years.
Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide, responsible for , new cases in 4. Geographic variation in incidence is very striking. Other areas of relatively high risk are southern and eastern Africa, southcentral Asia, and in men only Japan Figure This geographic variability is even more marked when smaller units are studied—for example, between countries or even within countries eg, in China, South Africa, or France. It seems that the environmental carcinogens responsible also show important geographic differences.
Chewing of tobacco and betel is important in the Indian subcontinent. Nutritional deficiencies specifically of micronutrients are thought to underlie the high risk in central Asia, China, and southern Africa.
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Worldwide, most esophageal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, arising in the middle and low third of the esophagus. Recently, there appears to be an increase in western countries in relative and absolute numbers of adenocarcinomas of the lower third of the esophagus. The most likely explanation for the increases in incidence of adenocarcinoma seems to be the increasing prevalence of Barrett's esophagus as a consequence of gastroesophageal reflux, which is becoming more common with increasing levels of obesity.
An estimated , bladder cancer cases occurred in , making this the ninth most common cause of cancer for both sexes combined. The variation in international incidence is not particularly striking relative to other cancers, however Figure Rates are high in many southern and eastern European countries where smoking in men has been prevalent, and in parts of Africa and the Middle East where bladder cancer, particularly of the squamous cell type, is linked to chronic infection with Schistosoma hematobium.
Advances in molecular biology, genetics, and immunology have resulted in extensive changes in the classification of lymphoid tumors in the last few decades. The WHO classification 74 distinguishes tumors primarily by cell lineage defined by immunophenotype and groups together lymphomas and leukemias, acknowledging that some solid tumors also pass through circulating leukemic phases. NHLs are slightly more common in developed countries The relatively high estimated incidence in females in central Africa Figure 16 is a consequence of high relative frequency of such cancers in the few available datasets from this area.