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First Certified Color Regulations, requested by manufacturers and users, list seven colors found suitable for use in foods.

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Gould Amendment requires that food package contents be "plainly and conspicuously marked on the outside of the package in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count. Note: this is an example of an issue relating to the misbranding of food. It ruled that in order for bleached flour with nitrite residues to be banned from foods, the government must show a relationship between the chemical additive and the harm it allegedly caused in humans.

The court also noted that the mere presence of such an ingredient was not sufficient to render the food illegal. Note: the burden was on the government to demonstrate that the food was unsafe; that is, food businesses were not required to establish that the food was safe.

Watch -- does this expectation change over time to where a substance has to be recognized as safe before it can be used? The purpose of the agreement was to encourage a common international approach to controlling animal diseases, and to safeguard world trade by publishing health standards for international trade in animals and animal products. McNary-Mapes Amendment authorizes FDA standards of quality and fill-of-container for canned food, excluding meat and milk products.

Note: the exclusion of meat and milk products illustrate that another agency, such as USDA, has regulatory oversight for certain foods. This exclusion reflects the distinction that Congress created by enacting the two major pieces of legislation in The first bill is introduced into the Senate, launching a five-year legislative battle.

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Elixir of Sulfanilamide, containing the poisonous solvent diethylene glycol, kills persons, many of whom are children, dramatizing the need to establish drug safety before marketing and to enact the pending food and drug law. Note that again Congress responds after the situation has become a problem. Even though Congress has authorized the executive branch to set food quality standards, very few such standards have been established.

Under the Wheeler-Lea Act, the Federal Trade Commission is charged with overseeing advertising associated with products otherwise regulated by FDA, with the exception of prescription drugs. Note that the prohibition against misbranding is being applied to advertising as well as packaging and package labeling. Campbell appointed as the first Commissioner of Food and Drugs.

Miller Amendment affirms that the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act applies to goods regulated by the Agency that have been transported from one state to another and have reached the consumer. FDA publishes guidance to industry for the first time. This guidance, "Procedures for the Appraisal of the Toxicity of Chemicals in Food," came to be known as the "black book.

Guides provide a mechanism by which the regulatory agency can influence industry practices without having to mandate specific standards.

As a Guide, these expectations also can be updated or modified more readily to fit the evolving nature of food technology and the food industry. Oleomargarine Act requires prominent labeling of colored oleomargarine, to distinguish it from butter. Note: the political clout of the dairy industry led to laws imposing some interesting prohibitions and limitations on a competing product, that is, margarine.

Were these laws based on concerns for the safety of consumers or the economic well-being of the dairy industry? To what extent do economic interests drive the lobbying that influences the decisions of our elected officials? Will economic considerations also arise in later years as nations negotiate agreements directing the international trade of food? Are all discussions about the safety of food really focused on concern about consumers, or is food safety sometimes used as a disguise to hide economic interests? Delaney Committee starts congressional investigation of the safety of chemicals in foods and cosmetics, laying the foundation for the Miller Pesticide Amendment, the Food Additives Amendment, and the Color Additive Amendment.

Note: International Plant Protection Convention was created in ; it is an international treaty relating to plant health.

Restated, it is an international treaty to prevent the spread and introduction of pests of plants and plant products, and to promote appropriate measures for their control International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures [ ISPMs ]. See web site for the International Plant Protection Convention. Factory Inspection Amendment clarifies previous law and requires FDA to give manufacturers written reports of conditions observed during inspections and analyses of factory samples. Recall that FDA conducts periodic inspections of food businesses, rather than the continuous inspection that USDA is required to provide at meat processing plants.

Miller Pesticide Amendment spells out procedures for setting safety limits for pesticide residues on raw agricultural commodities. Note: although much of FDA's regulations address food manufacturers and food processing, it is recognized that food proceeds through a chain of events before it reaches the consumer. For example, a food product involves the production of agriculture commodities, processing of commodities into food products, transporting and storing the food, displaying and selling the food, and final preparation of the food. A food product could become unsafe at any point in this chain of events but the danger may not be obvious until the consumer becomes ill.

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This amendment begins to illustrate that food safety needs to be addressed from "farm-to-fork" -- a concept that will receive more attention in the s. The Branch's primary function was to determine the safety of animal drugs, both for animals and for consumers of food derived from treated animals. First large-scale radiological examination of food carried out by FDA when it received reports that tuna suspected of being radioactive was being imported from Japan following atomic blasts in the Pacific.

FDA begins monitoring around the clock to meet the emergency. Note: Poultry Products Inspection Act PPIA was enacted in in response to the rapidly expanding market for dressed, ready-to-cook poultry and processed poultry products. Food Additives Amendment enacted, requiring manufacturers of new food additives to establish safety. Note: This amendment was in response to the public's concern about invisible hazards from chemicals added directly or indirectly to foods.

The amendment was intended to deal with the safety of ingredients used in processed foods, including animal drug residues in meat and poultry products. Note: was this amendment a reversal of the legal position taken in the decision in U. Lexington Mill and Elevator Company?

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The Delaney proviso prohibits the approval of any food additive shown to induce cancer in humans or animals. Note: the Delaney Clause addressed carcinogens. The basic rule was that a substance cannot be added to food in detectable quantities if the substance is shown to cause cancer in test animals. Implementing this standard became more onerous during the following decades as analytical technologies advanced so that significantly smaller quantities can now be detected. The list contains nearly substances.

Cleared berries were allowed a label stating that they had been tested and had passed FDA inspection, the only such endorsement ever allowed by FDA on a food product. Color Additive Amendment enacted, requiring manufacturers to establish the safety of color additives in foods, drugs and cosmetics. Note: This amendment addressed the concern that some colors additives are likely to lead to allergic reactions when consumed. Note: the question has to be asked again -- has the "table turned?

Compare this entry to the entry for Kennedy in a message to Congress. Included are the right to safety, the right to be informed, the right to choose, and the right to be heard. Note: the consumers will decide what they want to consume -- not government. But consumers must have accurate information about the product to make an informed decision. This principle reiterates the broad definition of misbranding and reiterates that consumers will not be regulated.

We will see in subsequent years that the focus will be on educating consumers so they are prepared to make informed decisions. The main purposes of this Programme are protecting health of the consumers and ensuring fair trade practices in the food trade, and promoting coordination of all food standards work undertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organizations.

Will the international standards follow the lead of one nation, or will the standards reflect the "best" ideas from a variety of nations? Although compliance with Codex standards is voluntary, nations have an economic incentive to comply if their international trading partners demand compliance. As nations decide to comply with international standards, will national laws such as federal law in the United States need to be reviewed and revised to assure they are consistent with international standards?

Will state and local food laws also need to be reviewed and revised to assure they comply with the federal laws that now reflect international standards? See the note following the entry.

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Fair Packaging and Labeling Act requires all consumer products in interstate commerce to be honestly and informatively labeled, with FDA enforcing provisions on foods Note: Under the Wholesome Meat Act of , States were to conduct an adequate inspection of the nation's meat. Animal Drug Amendments place all regulation of new animal drugs under one section of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act-Section making approval of animal drugs and medicated feeds more efficient.

Note: "These amendments were designed to ensure that animal drugs are safe and effective for their intended uses and that they do not result in unsafe residues in foods. FDA begins administering Sanitation Programs for milk, shellfish, food service, and interstate travel facilities, and for preventing poisoning and accidents. These responsibilities were transferred from other units of the Public Health Service. Environmental Protection Agency established; takes over FDA program for setting pesticide tolerances.

Note: another federal agency EPA has been added to the food regulatory scheme. Again, attention is being given to the safety of agricultural commodities; that is, the concept of "farm-to-fork. Egg Products Inspection Act authorized USDA to "[inspect] egg products sold in interstate commerce, and [reinspect] imported products to ensure that they meet U.

In egg processing plants, inspection involves examining, before and after breaking, eggs intended for further processing and use as food. Low-acid food processing regulations issued, after botulism outbreaks from canned foods, to ensure that low-acid packaged foods have adequate heat treatment and are not hazardous. Vitamins and Minerals Amendments "Proxmire Amendments" stop FDA from establishing standards limiting potency of vitamins and minerals in food supplements or regulating them as drugs based solely on potency.